Comparisons and Contrasts (Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax)
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Paola Beninca. Enoch Olade Aboh. Silvio Cruschina. Peter Svenonius. Mamoru Saito. Seth Cable. Richard S. Jessica Coon. Hiroyuki Ura. Janne Bondi Johannessen. Alison Henry.
Ur Shlonsky. Adrian Battye. Mark C. Hermann Kurthen. Correct answers were determined by a score of 1 and incorrect answers were registered as zero. After five interval incorrect answers the test was ended. After test completion, linguistic analysis trans- formed the data into standard scores with reference to Table A of the book based on chronological age. Then, based on the set of standard scores and with reference to Table B of the book, the syntactic gain was also calculated. Finally, after consulting the guide table for interpretation of the standard scores of the subtests, the individual syntactic performance was assessed for detailed information, refer to the test guide handbook 19 , Data obtained from syntactic subtests in the two classes of children with hearing loss and children with normal hearing as well as gender-segregated classes of male and female children with hearing impairment were analyzed by SPSS software based on Version The mean and standard deviation were used for descriptive analysis, while the t-test was used for independent groups in the above classes because the distribution of data was normal according to the Kolmogrov-Smirnov test.
All children in the learning center have been taught by routine rehabilitation without any intervention. However, signed informed consent was provided by parents of all the children. According to Table 1 , the mean syntactic scores of male and female children with hearing loss were With reference to Guide Table for Interpretation of Language Development Test 19 and the scores obtained from the children with normal hearing in the above table, the scores of children with hearing loss were below those for the average population normalized standard due to percentile ranks is 90— score Mean gains of syntactic scores for male and female children with hearing loss and those with normal hearing.
Syntactic gains of the mean standard scores in children with hearing loss and children with normal hearing. As it can be seen, there was no notable difference between the two groups in the grammatical understanding subtest, while in the two other subtests i. A parametric test t-independent was used due to the normal distribution of the data to compare the syntactic skills of both male and female children with hearing impairment.
Table 2 indicates that the t-value of the ungrammatical understanding subtest, sentence imitation subtest, and grammatical completion was 0. The Comparison of the mean of standard scores of the syntactic skills test between male and female children with hearing impairment. In order to compare the syntactic skills between children with hearing loss and children with normal hearing, a parametric test t-independent was used due to the normal distribution of the data.
Table 3 suggests that the t-value in the grammatical understanding subtest, sentence imitation subtest, and grammatical completion subtest was 1. Comparison of the mean of standard scores of the syntactic skills test between children with hearing loss and children with normal hearing.
The results of this study show that the performance of children with hearing loss and children with normal hearing in the two subtests of sentence imitation and sentence completion, which required proper use of vocabularies and sentences, were in line with the finding of Peters 21 and Bamford and Saunders Peters et al found that the syntactic performance of children with hearing loss in vocabulary comprehension and usage was lower than that of children with normal hearing of the same age Bamford and Saunders in their study on children with hearing loss showed that these children were more likely to use content words such as nouns and verbs in their speech, while grammatical words such as prepositions, conjunctions, and pronouns were less likely to be observed in their speech Moreover, quoting Zarifian 22 , Paul maintains that children with hearing loss face problems in learning and usage of lexical and functional morphemes such as adverbs, prepositions, pronouns, along with using relative clauses, complex sentences and verb inflections Williams maintains that the sentences formed by people with hearing loss are simple, with frequent use of nouns and a shorter mean length utterance compared with that of people with normal hearing They often have verbal errors in their speech, and their sentences are characterized by disagreement between subject and verb In the present study, no significant difference was observed in grammatical understanding between children with hearing loss and children with normal hearing.
On one hand, this finding is in contrast with the results of Peters concerning the vocabulary comprehension 22 , and on the other hand, it is in line with the study of Yoshinaga-Itano, suggesting that timely and appropriate intervention in the early ages can promote the linguistic skills of the children with severe-to-profound hearing impairment to the level of children with normal hearing Another study by Yoshinaga and Thompson revealed that the early detection of hearing impairment can help children with hearing loss with natural cognitive capacities to function almost equally to children with normal hearing of their age in all linguistic areas including phonology, morphology, syntax and pragmatics Considering that gender is one of the factors influencing the language of the children; the studies suggest that this effect is only significant in the early language learning stages.
According to the present study, there was no significant difference between male and female children with hearing impairment in syntactic aspects in all three subtests, and they had almost similar standard scores and syntactic gains. This finding is in keeping with the studies of Clark and Stewart , Roberts and Block , Arshi on the difference between male and female children with hearing impairment in terms of linguistic capacities, which did not report any difference in this regard The studies of Mofidi et al show that normal students who attended preschool language learning courses had a superior performance in syntactic skills such as grammatical understanding, sentence imitation, and grammatical completion compared with students who failed to attend these classes This is in keeping with this study, in which patients had been exposed to rehabilitative programs with auditory-verbal approach.
The results of the present study show that the mean chronological and syntactic age of children with hearing loss were both compatible with the studies of Brown et al that assumed the language development of children with hearing loss to be identical to the language development of children with normal hearing Our study also had some limitations. Apart from limited sampling, the results were based on cross-sectional data instead of a longitudinal study.
Another limitation was the range of our subjects with hearing loss, since all subjects had severe hearing loss. To investigate the hearing loss effect it also could be appropriate to evaluate cochlear implant. Syntax is one of the skills that is learned during growth, particularly the critical period.
The development of language skills is influenced by the manner of speech of the people around the child, especially the mother, as well as sentence complexity, repetition and practice, and proper communicative events. Thus, the comparison of the syntactic skills of children with hearing loss and children with normal hearing in this paper shows that the earlier exposure of children with hearing loss to natural and appropriate environment as well as timely and proper rehabilitative education with emphasis on auditory sense can improve the performance of these children to the level of normal children in some syntactic areas, and minimize the delay in other areas through persistency and proper planning.
We recommend that, in the future, studies include a large sample and a specific intervention. After a period of time, studies should also investigate children with a hearing aid with respect to other aspects of language skills such as speech production and speech perception. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Iran J Otorhinolaryngol v. Iran J Otorhinolaryngol. Find articles by Mohammad Reza PahlavanNezhad. Find articles by Hamid Tayarani Niknezhad. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Sep 11; Accepted Jan 8. Copyright notice. Abstract Introduction: The present study seeks to describe and analyze the syntactic features of children with severely hearing loss who had access to the hearing aids compared with children with normal hearing, assigning them to the same separate gender classes. Materials and Methods: In the present study, eight children with severe hearing impairment who used a hearing aid and eight hearing children matched for age and gender were selected using an available sampling method based on the principles of auditory-verbal approach.
Conclusion: With early diagnosis and timely rehabilitating intervention, children with hearing loss can perform in a similar way to children of their age with normal hearing in some syntactical areas. Introduction Language is such a complex system that only humans have the capacity to learn it. Materials and Methods The present research is a cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study that draws on an available sampling method.
Statistical analysis Data obtained from syntactic subtests in the two classes of children with hearing loss and children with normal hearing as well as gender-segregated classes of male and female children with hearing impairment were analyzed by SPSS software based on Version Results According to Table 1 , the mean syntactic scores of male and female children with hearing loss were Table 1 Mean gains of syntactic scores for male and female children with hearing loss and those with normal hearing.
- The syntax of comparison constructions in diachronic and dialectal perspective.
- Early Modern English - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics.
Open in a separate window. Fig 1. Table 2 The Comparison of the mean of standard scores of the syntactic skills test between male and female children with hearing impairment. Table 3 Comparison of the mean of standard scores of the syntactic skills test between children with hearing loss and children with normal hearing. Discussion The results of this study show that the performance of children with hearing loss and children with normal hearing in the two subtests of sentence imitation and sentence completion, which required proper use of vocabularies and sentences, were in line with the finding of Peters 21 and Bamford and Saunders References 1.
A Ambiguity of meaning can be observed when more than two words are strung together [[old men] and [women]] or [old [men and women]], see [ 11 ]. B The meaning of phrase depends on syntactic structure. C The meaning of Japanese tit sequence also depends on how meaningful calls are combined, indicating that there is also a syntactic structure in which call ordering governs the meaning of sequence.
Finally, Bolhuis and colleagues [ 11 ] argue that hierarchical structure and free productivity are essential components of human language that are absent in tit calls. Arguing that these features are not present in Japanese tit call sequences is not suitable to reject the interpretation of our findings. We note that parallels between vocal learning of birdsongs and human language are commonly made [ 12 , 13 ].
An important component of human language learning, unlike birdsong learning, is that meanings are associated to signals [ 3 ]. One could argue, as Bolhuis and colleagues [ 11 ] do about Japanese tit call combinations, that because this component of human language is absent in birdsong learning, any comparison between the two processes is invalid. Instead, we recognize that previous and ongoing work into birdsong has indeed uncovered deep insight into the neural, genomic, behavioural basis, and evolution of vocal learning more generally, despite the differences between birds and humans.
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Likewise, we are confident that future research into animal call combinations will provide similar insights into the evolution of compositionality. In summary, we assert that the comments by Bolhuis and colleagues [ 11 ] do not change any interpretation of our results or the conclusion of the studies [ 4 — 6 ]. Our research, and that of others, has shown that call combinations incorporate different meaningful elements, which provides a new model to study the syntax—semantics link in nonhuman species [ 14 ]. In addition, recent studies have shown that Japanese tits communicate about predatory threats by using combinations of different linguistic capabilities, such as referential signals and compositional syntax [ 4 , 17 ].
In light of our findings, we believe that animal call sequences can provide an invaluable model system for comparative studies to uncover the origins and evolution of linguistic capabilities that form the basis of syntactic communication. Abstract Syntax is the set of rules for combining words into phrases, providing the basis for the generative power of linguistic expressions.
Download: PPT. Fig 2. Examples of parse trees for human phrases and Japanese tit call sequences. References 1. Fitch WT.venlalegua.tk
Published — Rethinking Comparative Syntax (ReCoS)
The evolution of language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; The faculty of language: what is it, who has it, and how did it evolve? Hurford JR. The origins of grammar: Language in the light of evolution II.
TOPICS IN COMPARATIVE SYNTAX WITH REFERENCE TO THE TEACHING OF GREEK TO SPEAKERS OF ENGLISH
Oxford: Oxford University Press; Suzuki TN. Communication about predator type by a bird using discrete, graded and combinatorial variation in alarm calls. Anim Behav. View Article Google Scholar 5. Experimental evidence for compositional syntax in bird calls. Nat Commun.